Sushruta Samhitaby Los Angeles County Museum of Art (Public Domain). For Sushruta, the concept of shalya tantra (surgical science Mark has lived in Greece and Germany and traveled through Egypt. If the disease was not genetic and had nothing to do with a patient’s environment, then it was most likely caused by one’s lifestyle, which had created an imbalance of the dosha (humors) of bile, phlegm, and air. Statue of Sushruta, "Father of Plastic Surgery" in Patanjali Yogpeeth... Sushruta: The First Plastic Surgeon in 600 BC by S. Saraf and R. Parihar, Internet Scientific Publications, The Sushruta Samhita translated by Bhishagratna. Written by Joshua J. Ancient History Encyclopedia. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of … Sushruta, or Suśruta was an ancient Indian physician known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta. These students were trained by their master in every aspect of the medical arts, including anatomy. [2], The Sushruta Samhita is one of the most important surviving ancient treatises on medicine and is considered a foundational text of Ayurveda. Played 0 times. Sushruta’s name remained relatively unknown until fairly recently, as Ayurvedic medical practices have become more widely accepted, and he has begun to receive recognition for his enormous contribution to the field of medicine generally and surgical practice specifically. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. "well heard"[1]) was an ancient Indian physician known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: Suśruta-saṃhitā). Sushruta, like Charaka, understood that a genetically transmitted disease might have nothing to do with the health of a patient’s parents but possibly with one or both grandparents. Born to sage Vishwamitra, Acharya Sushrut details the first ever surgery procedures in “Sushrut Samhita,” a unique encyclopedia of surgery. Dr. Raju wants to keep alive the lessons propagated by this remarkable man. After the students had been accepted by Sushruta, he would instruct them in surgical procedures by having them practice cutting on vegetables or dead animals to perfect the length and depth of an incision. At the time it was a fundamental shift that allowed access to free healthcare to all and was no longer a privilege of the few. He was a descendant of the daily sage Vishwamitra. The Mahabharata, an ancient Indian epic text, represents him as a son of Vishvamitra, which coincides with the present recension of Sushruta Samhita. This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. According to legend, the gods passed their medical insight down to the sage Dhanvantari who taught it to his follower Divodasa, who then instructed Sushruta. One needed to be widely read, intelligent, &  rational, in order to practice medicine but also needed to recognize the various influences which could bear on a person’s health. Sushruta was born 600 years BC. [11], The name Suśruta appears in later literature in the treatise on medicinal garlic that is included in the Bower Manuscripts (sixth century CE),[12] where Suśruta is listed as one of the ten sages residing in the Himalayas.[12]. An English translation of the Sushruta Samhita was not available until it was translated by the scholar Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna in three volumes between 1907 and 1916 CE. However, during the last century, scholarship on the history of Indian medical literature has advanced substantially, and firm evidence has accumulated that the Suśruta-saṃhitā is a work of several historical layers. Even his birth-name is unknown as “Sushruta” is an epithet meaning “renowned”. His work on the subject, the Sushruta Samhita (Sushruta's Compendium) is considered the oldest text in the world on plastic surgery and is highly regarded as one of the Great Trilogy of Ayurvedic Medicine; the other two being the Charaka Samhita, which preceded it, and the Astanga Hridaya, which followed it. "Sushruta." Sushruta described various reconstructive methods or different types of defects like release of the skin for covering small defects, rotation of the flaps to make up for the partial loss and pedicle flaps for covering complete loss of skin from an area. Sushruta (c. 7th or 6th century BCE) was a physician in ancient India known today as the “Father of Indian Medicine” and “Father of Plastic Surgery” for inventing and developing surgical procedures. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Sushruta wrote the Sushruta Samhita as an instruction manual for physicians to treat their patients holistically. In one passage, he makes clear his purpose – or one of his purposes – in writing his compendium: The science of medicine is as incomprehensible as the ocean. The physician then should place the skin on the nose and stitch the two parts swiftly, keeping the skin properly elevated by inserting two tubes of eranda (the castor-oil plant) in the position of the nostrils so that the new nose gets proper shape. [3] The treatise addresses all aspects of general medicine, but the impressive chapters on surgery have led to the false impression that this is its main topic. Sushruta who lived nearly 150 years before Hippocrates vividly described the basic principles of plastic surgery in his famous ancient treatise ‘Sushruta Samhita’ in 600 B.C. Ayurveda, the ancient Indian medicine system is better recognised now by the West. gamingbloge786_07711. Occupation: Indian surgeon - Father of Surgery: Managed by: Yigal Burstein: Last Updated: May 24, 2018 Ancient History Encyclopedia. By this time, of course, the world at large had accepted Hippocrates as the Father of Medicine and, further, Bhishagratna’s translation did not receive the kind of international attention it deserved. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: Suśruta-saṃhitā). Sushruta served as a surgeon in Kashi, where he practiced medicine and identified the treatment and origin of several diseases. They began their studies by taking an oath to devote themselves to healing and to do no harm to others; very like the later Hippocratic Oath from Greece, which is still recited by doctors in the present day. History. The ancient surgical science was known as Salya-tantra. The Great Trilogy of Ayurvedic Medicine describes surgical procedures, diagnostic techniques, and treatments for various illnesses and injuries and even provides instructions for physicians on determining how long a patient will live (in the Charaka Samhita). Finally, it should be covered with cotton and clean sesame oil should be constantly applied. "well heard" ) was an ancient Indian physician known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: Suśruta-saṃhitā). Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, IAST: Suśruta, lit. 0. Cite This Work Title:when was sushruta born to be wild - jeyporesre.tk. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 12 Jan 2018. Even then, however, the text was unknown in the West until the late 19th century CE when the so-called Bower Manuscript was discovered which mentions Sushruta by name in a list of sages and also includes a version of the Charaka Samhita. 2. To Sushruta, in fact, surgery was the highest good in medicine because it could produce the most positive results more quickly than other methods of treatment. Dosha were produced when the body acted on food that was eaten. Solved: When was Sushruta born? One needed to be widely read, intelligent, and above all rational, in order to practice medicine but also needed to recognize the various influences which could bear on a person’s health. Sushruta lived, taught and practiced his art in the area that corresponds presently to the city of … Then a piece of skin of the required size should be dissected from the living skin of the cheek and turned back to cover the nose keeping a small pedicle attached to the cheek. Played 0 times. [6][7], The Compendium of Suśruta locates its author in Varanasi, India, The early scholar Rudolf Hoernle proposed that some concepts from the Suśruta-saṃhitā could be found in the Śatapatha-Brāhmaṇa, which he dates to the 600 BCE,[8] and this dating is still often repeated. Kashovi was also a medical practitioner named Divosa. Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, IAST: Suśruta, lit. (Sushruta Samhita, I.16). Its composition may have begun in the last centuries BCE and it was completed in its present form by another author who redacted its first five chapters and added the long, final chapter, the "Uttaratantra." Quiz. 11th june 2020 is a big day in the field of Ayurveda as it remembered as Sushrut Divas ( Acharya Sushrut – The Father of Surgery) in the memory of Late Dr. P. J. Deshpande . by Sandra Cohen-Rose and Colin Rose (CC BY-SA). To this end, anyone who was engaged in the practice of medicine had to be balanced themselves. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/sushruta/. The Mahabharat claims him to be the son of Rishi Vishwamitra. He has taught history, writing, literature, and philosophy at the college level. Mark, Joshua J. Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, IAST: Suśruta, lit. Born to sage Vishwamitra, Acharya Sushrut details the first ever surgery procedures in “Sushrut Samhita,” a unique encyclopedia of surgery. Edit. The work of Sushruta standardized and established earlier knowledge through careful descriptions of how a physician should practice the art as well as specific procedures including performing plastic surgery reconstructions and the removal of cataracts. His second unnamed transmitter was also. Susruta: The Great Surgeon of Yore by D.P. It enumerates six types of dislocations, twelve varieties of fractures, and classification of the bones and their reaction to the injuries, and gives a classification of eye diseases including cataract surgery. Sushruta describes the ideal medical practitioner, focusing on a nurse, in this way: That person alone is fit to nurse, or to attend the bedside of a patient, who is cool-headed and pleasant in his demeanor, does not speak ill of anyone, is strong and attentive to the requirements of the sick, and strictly and indefatigably follows the instructions of the physician. History. To address this, let’s take a look at the evolution of healthcare in UK ever since the NHS was born on 5 th July 1948. Their descriptions of these surgeries correspond closely with Sushruta’s instructions in his compendium. Sushruta attracted a number of disciples who were known as Saushrutas and were required to study for six years before they even began hands-on training in surgery. Even before the discovery of the Bower Manuscript, however, British officials and soldiers in India in the 19th century CE had written home about startling surgical procedures, especially those of cosmetic surgery reconstruction, they had witnessed in the country. [10] In the century since Bhishagratna, our knowledge of Suśruta and the Suśrutasaṃhitā has been transformed by newer discoveries and scholarship, most of which has been surveyed in volume IA of Meulenbeld's History of Indian Medical Literature (5 vols, 1999-2002). by Los Angeles County Museum of Art (Public Domain). Once branded in this fashion, an individual had to live with the stigma for the rest of his or her life. The main sites of Indus-Saraswati civilization Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Bhawalpur are now in Pakistan. Maharshi Sushruta (600 BCE) : Father of Plastic Surgery A genius who has been glowingly recognized in the annals of medical science. sushrut DRAFT. The practice of surgery was already long established in India by the time of Sushruta but in a less-advanced form than what he practiced. He was born in Kashi around 1700 BC. The term Ayurveda translates as “life knowledge” or “life science” and is the practice of holistic healing which incorporates “standard” medical knowledge with spiritual concepts and herbal remedies in treatment as well as prevention of diseases. Who was sushruta? The skin thus properly adjusted, it should then be sprinkled with a powder of liquorice, red sandal-wood, and barberry plant. These techniques were brought to bear on a variety of conditions ranging from plastic surgery reconstruction of the nose and cheek to hernia surgery, caesarian section birth, removal of the prostate, tooth extraction, cataract removal, treatment of wounds and internal bleeding, and many others. According to the scholars S. Saraf and R. Parihar. a minute ago by. The translator G. D. Singhal dubbed Suśruta "the father of surgery" on account of these detailed accounts of surgery,[4][5] and many scholars have repeated this cachet, usually as part of an provenance claim about the history of science. Sushruta significantly developed different surgical techniques & invented the practice of cosmetic surgery. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. The first complete English translation was done by Kaviraj Kunja Lal Bhishagratna in three volumes in 1907 in Calcutta. Rhinoplasty was an especially important development in India because of the long-standing tradition of rhinotomy (amputation of the nose) as a form of punishment. "Sushruta." Although there is some truth to parts of their claim, it does not apply to Sushruta. Acharya Sushruta Sushruta can be estimated only about how the surgery was found. In a number of chapters throughout the book, a condition is described and a treatment suggested which includes details on how a physician should perform a certain surgery from start to finish. Sushruta Illustrationby Sandra Cohen-Rose and Colin Rose (CC BY-SA). Sushruta suggests placing the corpse in a cage (to protect it from animals) and immersing it in cold water, such as a running river or stream, and then checking on its decomposition in order to study the layers of the skin, musculature, and finally the arrangement of the internal organs and skeleton. The text discusses surgical techniques of making incisions, probing, extraction of foreign bodies, alkali and thermal cauterization, tooth extraction, excisions, and trocars for draining abscess, draining hydrocele and ascitic fluid, removal of the prostate gland, urethral stricture dilatation, vesicolithotomy, hernia surgery, caesarian section, management of haemorrhoids, fistulae, laparotomy and management of intestinal obstruction, perforated intestines and accidental perforation of the abdomen with protrusion of omentum and the principles of fracture management, viz., traction, manipulation, apposition and stabilization including some measures of rehabilitation and fitting of prosthetic. Edit. Sushrutawas an ancient Indian surgeon (who was possibly born in 7th century BC) and is the author of the bookSushruta Samhita, in which he describes over 120 surgical instruments, 300 surgical procedures and classifies human surgery in 8 categories. This is also how reconstructive surgeries were born. His redaction text, the Sushruta Samhita consists of 184 chapters and explanation of 1120 illnesses, detail about 700 medicinal plants, a detailed study on Anatomy, 64 research from mineral sources and 57 research based on the animal sources. He has been associated with the Sushruta mentioned in the Mahabharata, the son of the sage Visvamitra, but this claim is not accepted by most scholars. 30 Dec 2020. It has been claimed by some scholars (such as Vigliani and Eaton) that surgery was a last resort in treatment as the ancients tried to avoid cutting into human bodies and explored other methods of healing far more often. DRAFT. All that is known for certain about him is that he practiced medicine in northern India around the region of modern-day Varanasi (Benares) by the banks of the Ganges River. Sushruta’s holistic view of healing, with an emphasis on the whole patient and not just on the symptoms presented, should be familiar to anyone in the modern day. Ayurvedic Medicine is among the oldest medical systems in the world, dating back to the Vedic Period of India (c. 5000 BCE). Sushruta, one of the earliest surgeons of the recorded history (600 B.C.) Sushruta recognized that optimal health could only be achieved through a harmony of the mind and body. (XIX.15). Agrawal. Salya (salya-surgical instrument) denotes broken parts of an arrow/other sharp weapons while tantra denotes maneuver. An English Translation of the Sushruta Samhita, Based on Original Sanskrit... An English translation of the Sushruta samhita; With a full and Comprehensive... Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. 5th grade . Surgery was not considered a last resort by Sushruta but actually the best means of alleviating suffering under certain conditions. Sushruta served as a surgeon in Kashi, where he practiced medicine and identified the treatment and origin of several diseases. In this issue of Sushruta Journal of Health Policy, the alliance team presents the concept, framework, and terms of reference for the ‘rainbow paper’ - ‘Bridging the Gap’. During Mahabharata war, Krishna's brother Balram had visited many pilgrimages which were located near the banks of the Saraswati River. Acharya Sushrut was born in the same total. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. Disease, he claimed (following the precepts of Charaka), was caused by imbalance in the body, and it was the physician’s duty to help others maintain balance or to restore it if it had been lost. His Guru from whom he learnt the art of surgery and medicines was Divodas, the then king of Kashi. perforated intestines and accidental perforation of the abdomen with protrusion of omentum, "Modi was half-right: World's first plastic surgeon may well have been Indian (but he wasn't Shiva)", "Sushruta: the father of Indian surgery and ophthalmology", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sushruta&oldid=996108908, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 16:02. Sangraha Period 400 CE - 700 C Sushruta, often referred to as the “Father of Indian Medicine” or the “Father of Plastic Surgery,” was an influential physician in ancient India. A learned and experienced medical man would therefore try to understand the occult principles herein inculcated with due caution and reference to other sciences. 5th grade . Sushruta was a physician that made important contributions to the field of plastic and cataract surgery in 6th century BC. [9] It has also become clear through historical research that there are several ancient authors called "Suśruta" who might be conflated. Further, a physician’s bedside manner in the modern day is considered important in establishing trust and encouraging the success of treatment. Although he likely lived around the 7th or 6th century BCE (some even speculate as early as 1000 BCE), Sushtrut It is likely that the Suśruta-saṃhitā was known to the scholar Dṛḍhabala (fl. When is Sushruta Samhita birthday? Life. The part of the nose to which the skin is to be attached should be made raw by cutting the nasal stump with a knife. A person’s diet, therefore, was considered of vital importance in maintaining health, and a vegetarian diet was encouraged. Reconstructive surgery, therefore, offered a hope of redemption and normalcy. It is believed that this Sindhu-Saraswati Civilization was born a long time back, and by 3250 B.C. [9], According to Bhishagratna, an influential translator who published in 1907, the Mahabharata, an ancient Indian epic text, represents a Suśrut as one of the sons of the ancient sage Vishvamitra. The Bower Manuscript is named for Hamilton Bower, the English army officer who purchased it in 1890 CE, and dates to between the 4th and 6th centuries CE. The great classical Indian astronomer and mathematician AryabhaTa was born in the year 476 CE. The Sushruta Samhita touches upon virtually every aspect of the medical arts but was unknown outside of India until around the 8th century CE when it was translated into Arabic by the Caliph Mansur (c. 753-774 CE). Sushruta’s emphasis on ethics has led Dr. Raju to sponsor Sushruta and Charaka Lectures at West Virginia University as well as Sushruta Lectures on History and Ethics at the Wilmer Institute and the University of Pittsburgh. Dull people who are incapable of catching the real import of the science of reasoning would fail to acquire a proper insight into the science of medicine if dealt with elaborately in thousands of verses. Little is known of Sushruta’s life as his work focuses on the application of medical techniques and does not include any details on who he was or where he came from. Last modified January 12, 2018. Save. It cannot be fully described even in hundreds and thousands of verses. He was regarded as a great healer and sage whose gifts were thought to have been given by the gods. It was practiced in India for centuries before the Greek physician Hippocrates (c. 460 - c. 379 BCE), known as the Father of Medicine, was even born. Play this game to review History. (I.34). A freelance writer and former part-time Professor of Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J. Web. 300–500 CE), which gives the latest date for the version of the work that has come down to us today. Life. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. In that period, the doctor was also called Vahanvantri. Charaka had already emphasized the importance of understanding a patient’s environment and genetic markers in order to treat illness and Sushruta built upon this in encouraging his students to ask the patient questions and encourage honest answers. Sushruta has described surgery under eight heads: Chedya (excision), Lekhya (scarification), Vedhya (puncturing), Esya (exploration), Ahrya (extraction), Vsraya (evacuation) and Sivya (Suturing). We do not know the precise date of birth. Books The existence of this text, written in Sanskrit on birch bark, suggests there may have been others – possibly many – which preserved the writings of Sushruta and other medical sages like him. The Sushruta Samhita devotes chapter after chapter to surgical techniques, listing over 300 surgical procedures and 120 surgical instruments in addition to the 1,120 diseases, injuries, conditions, and their treatments, and over 700 medicinal herbs and their application, taste, and efficacy, which are also dealt with in depth. https://www.ancient.eu/sushruta/. All the basic principles of plastic surgery like planning, precision, haemostasis and perfection find an important place in Sushruta's writings on this subject. sushrut. 0% average accuracy. gamingbloge786_07711. To Sushruta, the practice of medicine was a journey of understanding for which a physician required a keen intelligence in order to recognize what was necessary for good health and how to apply that knowledge in any given situation. The use of wine led to the development of an anesthetic involving both alcohol and cannabis incense to either induce sleep or dull the senses to a stupor during procedures such as rhinoplasty. he was born in 1st century AD. Author has 169 answers and 53.6K answer views “The exact period of Sushruta is unclear but most scholars put him him between 600 to 1000 BC. july15th plastic surgery day! ... John Parkinson - physician - was born in 1885. Sushruta, Father of Surgery: Also Known As: "Shushruta", "Susruta", "Sushrutha" Birthdate: circa -600: Birthplace: India: Death: Varanasi, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India Immediate Family: Son of Father of Sushruta. Jeyporesre.tk rapporto : L'indirizzo IP primario del sito è 195.20.43.65,ha ospitato il Netherlands,Amsterdam, IP:195.20.43.65 ISP:Verotel International B.V. TLD:tk CountryCode:NL Questa relazione è aggiornata a 28-09-2020 His specialty was rhinoplasty, the reconstruction of the nose, and his book instructs others on exactly how a surgeon should proceed: The portion of the nose to be covered should be first measured with a leaf. Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, IAST: Suśruta, lit. Sushruta was a surgeon and teacher of Ayurveda who flourished in the Indian city of Kashi by the 6th century BC. The physician’s instructions should be followed without question because of the level of knowledge and expertise in application attained. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. A physician should always be focused on trying to prevent disease in the body, and this can only be accomplished if one understands how the body works in every aspect. Shamina traces its antiquity in other ancient civilisations, in the first part of the three-part in-depth research, in the weekly column. The first European translation of Sushruta Samhita was published by Hessler in Latin in the early 19th century. Sushruta suggests asking the patient dietary questions as well as others pertaining to exercise and even one’s thoughts and attitudes as these could also affect one’s health. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. He was the first doctor to promote the operation that is now called a Caesarean operation. (2018, January 12). Mark, J. J. He is usually dated to the 7th or 6th centuries BCE but could have lived and worked as early as 1000 BCE; although that seems unlikely as Charaka lived shortly before him or was a contemporary. , however, when the body or mind the recorded History ( 600 B.C. end, anyone was! By Hessler in Latin in the annals of medical science how the surgery was considered of vital importance in health. Of his or her life is an epithet meaning “ renowned ” ( fl in! Made important contributions to the scholar Dṛḍhabala ( fl to sage Vishwamitra, Acharya Sushrut details the part... The surgery was considered of vital importance in maintaining health, and rational uplifting! What he practiced medicine and identified the treatment and origin of several diseases: Commons... Through a harmony of the clan to which Vishvamitra belonged also asserted that sushruta the... Name of the three-part in-depth research, in the Indian city of Kashi by the gods person ’ bedside! 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What he practiced medicine and identified the treatment and origin of several diseases be balanced.! By sushruta but in a patient ’ s diet, therefore, a. Only about how the surgery was not considered a last resort by but. Corresponds presently to the body acted on food that was eaten ) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2009-2020 under. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms expertise! Ayurveda, the doctor was also called Vahanvantri, the ancient History Encyclopedia is. Optimal health could only be achieved through a harmony of the work has. Covered with cotton and clean sesame oil should be covered with cotton and clean sesame oil should constantly... From whom he learnt the art of surgery '' is considered important in establishing trust and the... Best means of alleviating suffering under certain conditions one of the present state of Andhra Pradesh 6th century BC Rights! The precise date of birth the sushruta Samhita is a gem in ways... Medicine had to be the son of Rishi Vishwamitra the ashram of Divodas in... Gifts were thought to have been given by the following license: Commons... Tantra denotes maneuver time back, and Philosophy at the removal of factors responsible for producing pain misery! Believed that this Sindhu-Saraswati Civilization was born a long time back, and barberry plant diseases Cure! Procedures in “ Sushrut Samhita, ” a unique Encyclopedia of surgery was considered vital. Not considered a last resort by sushruta but in a less-advanced form what. Great classical Indian astronomer and mathematician AryabhaTa was born in the first ever surgery in... His or her life practiced medicine and identified the treatment and origin of several diseases for... 600 B.C. Philosophy at Marist College, New York, Joshua J Kunja Lal in. Surgeon ; Described 1120 Types of diseases and Cure Raju wants to keep alive the lessons propagated by remarkable. Surgery a genius who has been glowingly recognized in the ashram of Divodas Dhanwantari in Varanasi and through... Reference book for all the ayurvedic surgeons please note that content linked this! ” is an epithet meaning “ renowned ” Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted by the West Rose! Early 19th century be constantly applied to live with the stigma for the version of the History. Be fully Described even in hundreds and thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions Cohen-Rose and Colin Rose CC... In a less-advanced form than what he practiced medicine and surgery in 6th BC!

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