measuring the position of a robot’s hand. 15A shows an image in which a distribution rate of the characteristic points is zero, FIG. 15B shows an image in which a distribution rate of the characteristic points is negative, and FIG. are often required. On the other hand, in the third embodiment, the exterior orientation parameters are not corrected by using best data, but the positional data of the GPS, the postural data of the posture sensor, and the exterior orientation parameters calculated from the camera, are weighted and are bundle adjusted. PCT/JP2009/062067, dated Aug. 11, 2009, 2 pages. When the change of the photographing scene and the shift of the photographing unit are great, there may be cases in which characteristic points overlapping in the prior and the subsequent frames are partially distributed. Therefore, in the present invention, the obtaining time of the positional data of the GPS and the photographing time of the image are converted to the reference time outputted from the reference clock 6. 15A, since the characteristic points are uniformly distributed in the overall image, the total value of the X coordinates comes to zero. The vertical parallax is obtained by calculating the difference between the y coordinate of the characteristic point in a prior frame and the y coordinate of the characteristic point in a current frame. In this case, the center of the image is assumed to be origin (0, 0). Threshold values for the distribution rate of the characteristic points and the overlapping rate are adjustable. For the angle rate vx, vy, vz, values obtained from the posture sensor and the IMU are used. 0000001530 00000 n In the method for removing the miscorresponding points, the backward projection or the vertical parallax calculated by the relative orientation is used. These sensors a c: Focal point distance x,y,z: Image coordinates, X,Y,Z: Objective space coodinates (reference point, unknown point), Δx, Δy: Correction terms of internal orientation of a camera, ω,φ,κ: Posture of a camera (angles of x,y,z axes rotated from X,Y,Z axes), ε: Error between the image coordinates of the tracked corresponding point and the image coordinates calculated by the backward intersection method, P: Rate in which an exception value is not included at least one time in q times of the random sampling. In the case shown in FIG. 0000000986 00000 n When the exterior orientation parameters calculated from the images are evaluated to have low reliability, the positional data obtained from the position measuring unit 4 and the postural data obtained from the posture measuring unit 5 are used whereas the exterior orientation parameters calculated from the images are not used. 6, the sampled corresponding points (P1, P2) have a point P in the real space, and three-dimensional coordinates of the point P are reprojected on a stereo image shown by the dotted lines according to the coplanar conditional formula (sixth formula) of the relative orientation (step S31). 18, the calculation accuracy of the exterior orientation parameters of the subsequent frames is improved. 15C, since the characteristic points are distributed on the right side of the image, the total value of the X coordinates comes to positive. The change of the photographing scene and the shift of the photographing unit may be evaluated based on the value obtained by multiplying more than one or all of the parameters selected from the group consisting of the directions and the distances of the tracks of the characteristic points, the distribution rate of the characteristic points, the overlapping rate, and the vertical parallax. The stereo images are a pair of images and are made of two images photographed by cameras in a condition in which the optical axes are parallel, and directions intersecting a baseline direction at a right angle are parallel. The frame rate of the moving image do not coincide with the obtaining rate of the GPS and the posture sensor, whereby the photographing timing of the image do not synchronize with the obtaining timing of the positional data of the GPS and the postural data of the posture sensor. 17A is a schematic view showing a bundle adjustment related to the first and the second embodiments. Then, the steps S20 to S22 are repeated, and the minimum value (LMedS) of the central value is calculated (step S23). Empirical method. b=(x1-x0)⁢(x2-x1)+(y1-y0)⁢(y2-y1)(x1-x0)2+(y1-y0)2(x2-x1)2+(y2-y1)2Nineteenth⁢⁢Formula. For example, the removing of the miscorresponding points by the backward projection using a single photo orientation is used when the change of the scene is large because the miscorresponding points are removed based on one image. 48 13 In order to estimate a threshold value for evaluating the errors, a robust estimation may be used. 20). It is assumed that the measuring time from setting of the initial value or from resetting of the hardware is represented as t, and the accumulated error is approximated to an exponential function of 1.05t−1. The accuracy of each data will be described hereinafter. A position measuring device 100 of the invention comprises: an image acquisition section 2 … Privacy Policy Then, points having large errors are removed by using the value of the LMedS calculated in the step S33 as a threshold value (step S34). In this paper, we will explain the details of the measuring method as well as the experimental system we built in the laboratory. By realizing five degree-of-freedom (DOF) measurement of real-time position and orientation of roadheader, this method has been verified by the rapid excavation equipment in Daliuta coal mine. This method is derived from the 4-point method, which is used for soil resistivity measurements. Then, as shown in FIG. G=[w1⁡(Δ⁢⁢xi2+Δ⁢⁢yi2)]+[w2⁡(Δ⁢⁢Xi2+Δ⁢⁢Yi2+Δ⁢⁢Zi2)]+ [w3⁡(Δωi2+Δϕi2+Δκi2)]+ [w4⁡(Δ⁢⁢X02+Δ⁢⁢Y02+Δ⁢⁢Z02)]+ [w5⁡(Δ⁢⁢XIMU⁢⁢02+Δ⁢⁢YIMU⁢⁢02+Δ⁢⁢ZIMU⁢⁢02)]+ [w6⁡(Δ⁢⁢Xc⁢⁢202+Δ⁢⁢Yc⁢⁢202+Δ⁢⁢Zc⁢⁢202)]+ [w7⁡(Δωc⁢⁢2⁢i2+Δ⁢⁢ϕc⁢⁢2⁢i2+Δκc⁢⁢2⁢i2)]Twenty⁢-⁢ninth⁢⁢Formula Advantages of the Third Embodiment. Next, specific accuracy of the GPS and the posture sensor will be described. Et=vΔt Twenty-second Formula Ext=vxΔt Eyt=vyΔt Ezt=vzΔt Twenty-third Formula. When the change of the photographing scene and the shift of the photographing unit are great, there may be cases in which the characteristic points cannot be tracked, and the points are partially distributed in an image. For example, when c=0.3 and n=3, q=11 in order to obtain P=0.01. FIGS. Removal of the Miscorresponding Point by Using the Vertical Parallax. To increase the practicality of the two measurement methods introduced in Part 1, procedures for obtaining well distributed measurements are proposed and supported by programs which aid the choice of the lengths of the ball-bar and the determination of the disposition of the magnetic sockets. Therefore, the bundle adjustment is performed based on the data shown in a dotted frame area in FIG. Measurement Science and Technology PAPER A measurement method of cutting tool position for relay fabrication of microstructured surface To cite this article: Yuan-Liu … The distribution rate of the characteristic points and the overlapping rate are the total values of the X coordinates and the Y coordinates of the characteristic points which have an origin at the center of the image. In this paper, a novel relative position and orientation (R-P&O) measurement method for large-volume components is proposed. LMedS=min(med(εi2)) Thirtieth Formula, The number of times required to repeat the steps S20 to S22 is defined by using probability in which an exception value is not included at least one time in q times of the random sampling. A method of bunch by bunch measurement at nanoseconds interval by using cavity beam position monitors. Ext=1.05t−1+vxΔt Eyt=1.05t−1+vyΔt Ezt=1.05t−1+vzΔt Twenty-sixth Formula ExtALL=Ext+IMUe EytALL=Eyt+IMUe EztALL=Ezt+IMUe Twenty-seventh Formula Accuracy of the Exterior Orientation Parameters and the Three-dimensional Coordinates of the Characteristic Points. According to this embodiment, errors due to the change of the photographing scene and the shift of the photographing unit are decreased. 0000003953 00000 n The present invention can be utilized in a position measurement method, a position measurement device, and programs therefor. A position measurement apparatus and method using laser includes a laser generating device, an image device, and a control unit. In the LMedS method, compared to the least-squares method, even when numerous outliers are included in the data, the outliers are robustly estimated. 14B, when tracking distances of the subsequently detected characteristic points are greatly changed by double, quadruple, etc., with respect to the prior tracking distances, the photographing scene is evaluated to be changed. 0000000853 00000 n The cell angles, changing from 0° to 360° between any two neighboring code cells, are defined to represent any position on the code disc. As shown in FIG. On the other hand, when the change of the photographing scene and the shift of the photographing unit are relatively small, the exterior orientation parameters calculated from the images are evaluated to have high reliability. The weights of the positional data of the position measuring unit 4 and the postural data of the posture measuring unit 5 are calculated based on the difference between the photographing timing of the image and the obtaining timing of the positional data of the position measuring unit 4 or the postural data of the posture measuring unit 5. 0000001432 00000 n Figure 1. It is assumed that the difference of the photographing timing of the image and the obtaining timing of the positional data of the GPS or the postural data of the posture sensor is represented as Δt. generation, Position data interpolation method, position detecting sensor and position measuring device, SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ORIENTATION AND LOCATION CALIBRATION FOR IMAGE SENSORS, Device and method for position measurement, Three-dimensional image display apparatus and method, <- Previous Patent (Image generating app...). 0000000567 00000 n The method combines POS technology [13,14] and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor technology, which is helpful to improve the accuracy of measuring the phase center of array antenna. Accordingly, the errors of the exterior orientation parameters and the three-dimensional coordinates of the characteristic points are decreased. A modification of the first and the second embodiments will be described hereinafter. For compensation of the effect of air flow, the method requires introducing a further measurement. The vertical parallax is calculated as the difference between the y coordinates of the two corresponding points that are reprojected. This technique requires a comprehensive on-site survey and will be inaccurate with any significant change in the environment (due to moving persons or moved objects). Click for automatic bibliography One way to determine position is to match the data from the unknown location with a large set of known locations using an algorithm such as k-nearest neighbor. The steps S30 to S32 are repeated, and the minimum value (LMdeS) of the central value is obtained (step S33). Although the dipstick and lead line method of level measurement are unrivalled in accuracy, reliability, and dependability, there are drawbacks to this technique. The position measurement method according to claim 1, wherein the bundle-adjusting step bundle-adjusts by calculating weight of the photographing position and the photographing posture measured outside and weights of the exterior orientation parameters and the three-dimensional coordinates of the characteristic points, and by weighting each data. 16A, when the overlapping characteristic points are partially distributed, the exterior orientation parameters calculated from the image are evaluated to have low reliability. In each of the sampled points, a square of a residual value between the image coordinates (x′, y′) obtained by the backward intersection method and the image coordinates (x, y) of the tracked corresponding point is calculated, and a central value of the squares of the residual values is calculated (step S22). Methods: Method 1 uses a cylindrical ion chamber (IC) mounted on a jig corotational with the collimator making the relationship among the chamber, jaws, and CAOR fixed and independent of collimator angle. 16B shows an image in which characteristic points overlapping in prior and subsequent frames are not partially distributed. The accuracy of the exterior orientation parameters and the three-dimensional coordinates of the characteristic points calculated from the image have strong tendency to depend on the change of the photographing scene and the shift of the photographing unit. For example, in the case of the RTK-GPS (Real Time Kinematic GPS) system, the positioning mode is changed in real time as shown in the Table 1, according to the position of the GPS satellite, the effects of multipath affected by surrounding environment, the correction information from a control station, etc. The tracking results of the characteristic points include numerous miscorresponding points. Therefore, even when the photographing timing of the image do not synchronize with the obtaining timing of the positional data of the position measuring unit 4 and the postural data of the posture measuring unit 5, the errors of the exterior orientation parameters and the three-dimensional coordinates of the characteristic points are decreased. In this case, the exterior orientation parameters are corrected by using the positional data obtained from the position measuring unit 4 and the postural data obtained from the position measuring unit 5. If the accuracy of each data is represented as u, the weight w is calculated from a twenty-first formula. Laser Sensors and other Displacement and Position Sensors from Micro Epsilon use many different measurement principles. FIG. 17A, in the first embodiment, the exterior orientation parameters calculated from the camera are corrected based on the error caused by the time difference Δt of the positional data of the GPS or the postural data of the posture sensor. v=(Xi−Xi-1)×fps Twenty-fourth Formula. Each correction amount in the weighted bundle adjustment is calculated as a value for minimizing the following function G. For example, the symbol “w2” represents a weight of the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by the camera, and the symbols “w3” and “w4” represent weights of the exterior orientation parameters. Specifically, the LMedS estimation is superior in robustness, and the miscorresponding points are automatically removed even when the error range is unknown. The vertical parallax is a difference of y-coordinates of corresponding points in two images that are stereographed, that is, a difference of coordinate values in a direction intersecting a baseline direction of the stereo images at a right angle. The converted times include the transmission delay of the positional data and the postural data and the transmission delay of the image data. The position Property. ASM manufactures several different position measuring sensors. 16A shows an image in which characteristic points overlapping in prior and subsequent frames are partially distributed, and FIG. 17B. These overlapping characteristic points are points obtained by tracking the characteristic points.

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